Senin, 31 Januari 2011

John Singleton Copley Paints Older Women

1763 Sarah Tyler (Mrs. Samuel Phillips Savage)
1764 Miriam Kilby (Mrs. Samuel Hill)Whether painting fancy matrons wearing the latest fashions or plainly dressed, more formal religious women, many of John Singleton Copley's paintings of older New England women seem more direct, thoughtful, & stronger than his portraits of younger women.

1764 Mrs. Anna Dummer Powell.Copley lets us know that these are the surviving matriarchs who deserve the best upholstered chair in the candlelit parlor. Old age offers the leisure & independence to read & to reflect.

1766 Sarah Morecock (Mrs. Thomas Boylston).Many are holding books, actively involved in the life of the mind & the world beyond Boston. Copley & his sitters decided to show that continuing to seek knowledge was important in 18th century New England whether for devotion, entertainment, or instruction.

1766 Mrs-Sylvanus-Bourne.

1766 Ann Sargent (Mrs. Nathaniel Ellery).

1767-69 Mary Edwards (Mrs Ebenezer Storer).

1767 Hannah White (Mrs Robert Hooper).

1769 Mrs. Isaac Royall.
1770 Katherine Graves (Mrs James Russell).
1770 Relief Dowse (Mrs Michael Gill).1771 Mary Charnock (Mrs. Humphrey Devereux, Mrs. Samuel Greenwood, Mrs. Joseph Prince)

1771 Mrs. Paul Richard (Elizabeth Garland)
1771 Elizabeth Lewis (Mrs Ezekiel Goldthwait).
1773 Hannah Fayerweather (Mrs John Winthrop)..

Minggu, 30 Januari 2011

John Singleton Copley Borrows Another Pose

1755 Mezzotint by English artist James McArdell after Sir Joshua Reynolds Mrs. Bonfoy.This print may be seen at the British Museum in London.
1765 Artist: John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). Subject: Elizabeth Oliver (Mrs. George Watson).

Sabtu, 29 Januari 2011

Copley & Greenwood Copy Same Girl, Same Pearls, Same Pose

.1710-30 English artist Isaac Becket after Willem Wissing's portrait of Princess Anne. Mezzotint may be viewed at Henry Francis duPont Winterthur Museum and at the British Museum in London.
1749 Artist: John Greenwood (1727-1792). Subject: Elizabeth Fulford Welshman.1753 Artist: John Singleton Copley (1738-1815) Subject: Bethia Torrey (Mrs. Joseph Mann)..

Jumat, 28 Januari 2011

John Singleton Copley Copies British Print

1760 English artist James McArdell after Sir Joshua Reynolds Lady Caroline Russell Mezzotint may be viewed at the Yale Center for British Art or at the British Museum in London.

1763 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). Mrs Jerathmael Bowers..

Kamis, 27 Januari 2011

Women in Blue by John Singleton Copley

.c 1763 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). Lydia Lynde.
1763 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815) Hannah Loring.

1763 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815) Anne Fairchild (Mrs Metcalf Bowler)
1763 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). Mary Turner (Mrs. Daniel Sargent).1763 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). Mercy Otis (Mrs James Warren).
1763 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). Mrs Alice Hooper1763 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). Sarah Sargent (Mrs. Nathaniel Allen)1763 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815) Mary Tappan (Mrs Benjamin Pickman).

Rabu, 26 Januari 2011

John Singleton Copley Paints 3 Cousins in Same Brown Dress

.1746 English Mezzotint by artist John Faber, Jr., after Thomas Hudson, The Right Honourable Mary Finch, Viscountess Andover. (The print my be seen at the British Museum in London and at the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino, California.)

In 1763, these 3 sitters apparently planned with John Singleton Copley to be portrayed in nearly identical brown costumes & outdoor settings copied from John Faber's 1746 English mezzotint. Lucretia Chandler Murray & Mary Greene Hubbard were cousins. Mary Greene Hubbard was also a cousin of Katherine Greene Amory.

It is likely that Copley finished these portraits in his studio over a period of months. He probably painted heads & hands in person and added settings & costumes to his subjects at a later date. He was incredibly busy, and he often did not finish his portraits one at a time.

In October 1757, Capt. Thomas Ainslie of Nova Scotia wrote to Copley that he had received his portrait, which "gives me great Satisfaction." Ainslie and others invited Copley to come to Canada "where there are several people who would be glad to employ You."Copley replied: "I should receive a singular pleasure in excepting, if my Business was anyways slack, but it is so far otherwise that I have a large Room full of Pictures unfinished, which would ingage me these twelve months if I did not begin any others."

1763 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). Mary Greene (Mrs. Daniel Hubbard).1763 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). Lucretia Chandler (Mrs John Murray).
1763 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815) Katherine Greene (Mrs John Amory)..

Selasa, 25 Januari 2011

John Singleton Copley & Puritan Boston

John Singleton Copley was born on July 3, 1738, and died in London, on September 9, 1815. Although the son of Irish tobacconists was born in Boston, he was greatly influenced by his stepfather's knowlege of & association with English & European emmigrant artists. Copley's stepfather, Peter Pelham, (1695-1751) was a London painter & engraver who taught art, manners, & merchandizing to the talented youngster growing up amid his stepfather's collections of English portrait prints.

Pelham immigrated to Boston in the 1720s, and placed "Proposals" for printing his engravings in the Boston News-Letter on February 27, 1728. He supplemented his painting & engraving income by teaching "...Dancing, Writing, Reading, Arthemetick, Painting upon Glass and all sorts of Needlework."

1755 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). Portrait of a Woman.

Pelham did not focus on educating only the young. The year that Copley's mother married the engraver, the Boston Gazette of September 20, 1748, noted, "Mr. Pelham's Writing and Arithmetick School near the Town House, (during the winter) will be open from candle light till nine in the evening, as usual, for the benefit of those employed in Business all the Day." Copley's stepfather Peter Pelham set about educating & refining Boston's up-and-coming merchants & artisans in part to create a client base for his artistic ventures.

1756 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). Lucretia Hubbard Towsend.

In 1732, Pelham had initiated a a series of dance assemblies triggering the ire of one traditional Bostonian, who predicted that the assemblies would result in "immorality, pride, envy, and Biblical prodigality."

1761 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). Hannah Hill (Mrs. Samuel Quincy).

The conflict raged in the Boston Gazette from November 13 - December 4, 1732. Pelham & his supporters defended the assemblies as a school teaching not just dance but also proper behavior to Boston's citizens. Surely proper behavior would appeal to Puritan sensibilites.

The young Copley's stepfather sought comfort in associating with fellow artists recently arrived in the colonies from England & the continent. He befriended fellow artist John Smibert (1688-1748) who painted portraits & copies of old master paintings as well as selling art prints & supplies in their Boston neighborhood.

After Copley's stepfather died when he was 13, Copley was eager for influences beyond traditional, Puritan Boston. He soon met another artist Joseph Blackburn (active 1752–1777) newly arrived in Boston, whose portraits reflected the late 17th century Lely-Kneller baroque style & the 18th century rococo style.

1764 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). Catherine Osborne (Mrs. Epes Sargent).

Copley immediately recognized that Blackburn's style reflected just the influences, which Copley had begun to absorb from pouring over his stepfather's prints. Copley had inherited his stepfather's art tools in 1751, and he set about imitating rococo poses, compositions, & themes from Blackburn’s work & from those English prints.

1765 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). Elizabeth Deering Wentworth Gould (Mrs. Nathaniel Rogers)

At the beginning of his career, Copley was also influenced by artists working nearby in Boston: Joseph Badger (1707/8–1765), Robert Feke (about 1708–1751), & John Greenwood (1729–1792).

Copley learned to paint intricate layers of hair, flesh, textiles, & other props with dramatic contrasts of light & dark. He combined that realistic portrayal of his sitters with elegance & fantasy by borrowing settings, costumes, & compostions from 17th & 18th century English mezzotints and from neighboring painters.

1765 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). Katherine Russell (Mrs. Samuel Henley).

Young Copley was growing into perhaps the best artist in the 18th century colonies. His cleverness was exceeded only by his growing ego & by his longing to become part of that rarified English art community he had heard so much about since childhood. In the colonies, Copley felt he was only an artisan working in a cultural wasteland.

1765 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). Mary Storer (Mrs Edward Green).

In Copley's colonial sphere, affluent Boston & New York merchant elite paid to have their likeness painted, so that's what Copley did. His literal depictions of the faces of his subjects, regardless of the fancy costumes & backgrounds Copley might invent for them, were exactly what the gentry colonists wanted.

1765 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). Mrs. Joseph Scott.

These British Americans were becoming increasingly proud of America's exceptionalism & their personal individualism. Colonials realized that their Anglo American society, built on trade & accomplishment rather than tradition & aristocracy, was a world where familiar powers and institutions were shifting.

But Copley believed that a mere portrait painter was not a true artist who sould possess a noble & lofty mind and paint historical allegories of grand purpose. He longed to be ranked among the enlightened artists abroad who sought to extoll public virtue & broaden civilization through their work.

1767-69 John Singleton Copley (1715-1738). Elizabeth Green (Mrs. Ebenezer Storer II).

He lamented in a letter,
"A taste of painting is too much wanting...and was it not for preserving the resemblance of particular persons, painting would not be known in the place. The people generally regard it as no more than any other useful that of a carpenter, tailor, or shoemaker, not as one of the most Noble arts in the world. Which is more than a little Mortifying to me."

Colonial women & their fashion were a little too commonplace for him. Copley complained to Pennsylvania expatriate Benjamin West, that in order to dress his female subjects in the latest styles, he would have to import the gowns himself from England.

1767 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). Mrs. George Turner.

This wasn't exactly true, because Copley seemed to have no guilt about copying fashionable costumes from the latest English prints. And he wasn't shy about painting the same dress again & again on his too plain American sitters.

In 1765, hungry to hear some "informed" criticism of his work, he sent a portrait to London. Joshua Reynolds wrote him, "Considering the disadvantages you labored under, it is a very wonderful performance. … You would be a valuable acquisition to the art … provided you could receive these aids … before your manner and taste were corrupted or fixed by working in your little way in Boston."

1770 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). Ann Holmes (Mrs. William Coffin).

Copley wrote to his step-brother Peter Pelham that he longed to travel across the Atlantic ''to be heated with the sight of the enchanting Works of a Raphael, a Rubens, Corregio and a Veronese.''

1770 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). Elizabeth Goldthwait (Mrs. Alexander Cumming).

Refering to Reynold's opinion of his work, already expatriated Benjamin West advised Copley to follow his example by making "a viset to Europe for this porpase (of self-improvement) for three or four years."

1770 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). Susanna Clarke (Mrs. John Singleton Copley).

In a letter to West in the fall of 1766, Copley referred to himself as "peculiarly unlucky in Liveing in a place into which there has not been one portrait brought that is worthy to be call'd a Picture within my memory." Copley finally sailed from Boston in the summer of 1774, to find noble glory in Europe & England, never to return.

1772 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). Dorothy Quincy (Mrs. John Hancock).

John Singleton Copley wrote to his half brother from England in 1775, “It is a pleasing reflection that I shall stand amongst the first of the artist’s that shall have led that Country to the Knowledge and cultivation of the fine Arts.”

1772 John Singleton Copley (1738-1815). Dorothy Wendell (Mrs. Richard Skinner).

Writing to his wife Abigail a year later in 1776, John Adams, second president of the United States, described Copley as ''the greatest master that ever was in America.'' Copley would have agreed..

Senin, 24 Januari 2011

18th-Century New England Landscapes

Michele Felice Corne (1752–1845) Ezekiel Hersey Derby Farm

Michele Felice Corne (1752–1845) Harbor View

Michele Felice Corne (1752–1845) New England Country Seat.